The inner-directed person does not derive his sense of value or identity solely from tradition nor from conformity to peer-group fashions, but from the resources of his own nature.
This orientation can only be achieved by an individual who is in the process of developing his own character, of becoming ‘field-independent’, his or her volition self-determined (based on self-knowledge) and NOT controlling external circumstances or seeking to appease others.
The most original, creative and outstanding men and women are invariably of this type,
and yet it is no ‘elitist’ type, for it is available to all human beings with the courage of their convictions.
Field-dependents: (Dependent, Conformed Individuals)
Rely on the surrounding perceptual field.
Have difficulty attending to, extracting, and using non-salient cues.
Have difficulty providing structure to ambiguous information.
Have difficulty restructuring new information and forging links with prior knowledge.
Have difficulty retrieving information from long-term memory.
Have a disposition to be other-directed.
Have a tendency to be extraverted.
Field-dependents tend to be extrinsically motivated.
Field-independents: (Independent, Non-Conformed Individuals)
Perceive objects as separate from the field.
Can discern relevant items from non-relevant items within the field.
Provide structure when it is not inherent in the presented information.
Reorganize information to provide a context for prior knowledge.
Tend to be more efficient at retrieving items from memory.
Have a disposition to be inner-directed.
Have a tendency to be introverted.
Field-Independents tend to be intrinsically motivated.
Note: Intrinsic motivation, or engaging in a task for its enjoyment value, is one of the most powerful forms of motivation.
From my morning reading on Adult Intellectual Development.